The Security Council issued a unanimous statement, agreeing to take "significant measures" in response to the latest series of launches.
North Korea has test-fired several ballistic missiles in July and August, includingone from a submarine towards Japan on Wednesday.
China is Pyongyang's main ally.
The North Korean leader Kim Jong-un said the submarine-launched missile test was the "greatest success", putting the US mainland and the Pacific "within the striking range".
But Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said the missile breached his country's Air Defence Identification Zone and condemned what he called an "unforgivable, reckless act" and a grave threat to Japan's security.
The UN urged member states to redouble efforts to implement sanctions against Pyongyang, including the latest and toughest measures imposed by the council in March.
North Korea has been hit by five sets of UN sanctions since it first tested a nuclear device in 2006.