Macron said that schools would move to remote learning from next week.
Lockdown measures, introduced in some areas of France earlier this month, are also being extended to other districts.
All non-essential shops are to close from Saturday and there will be a ban on travelling more than 10km from home without good reason.
France's Health Ministry on Wednesday reported 59,038 new coronavirus cases.
The ministry added that 5053 patients were in intensive care units, down from a 2021 record of 5072 on Tuesday.
France has so far reported more than 4.6 million cases of coronavirus and 95,495 Covid-related deaths.
In his live televised address on Wednesday, Macron described the situation in the country as "delicate" and said that April would prove crucial.
The 43-year-old president said that it was a race between vaccination on the one hand and attempting to control the spread of the virus on the other.
He said that while schools would be closing from next week, classes would remain open for the children of key workers.
Macron said that measures introduced in 19 districts earlier this month - including the closure of non-essential businesses, exercise restricted to within 10km of an individual's home and a ban on travel to other parts of the country without a valid reason - would be extended nationwide.
"Everyone should limit their contacts with other people," he said, adding that people would be given the Easter weekend to get themselves to where they want to spend the lockdown.
He described "light at the end of the tunnel" if people respected the new measures.
Parliament will debate the measures announced by Macron before voting on them on Thursday, according to the prime minister's office.