Naftali Bennett said Iran's "regime of brutal hangmen" wants nuclear weapons - something Iran has repeatedly denied.
Diplomats said progress was made in Vienna today to renew the deal, which the US withdrew from under President Trump.
Israel opposes the agreement.
Iran elected hardliner Ebrahim Raisi as its new president on Friday.
The election race was widely seen as being designed to favour Mr Raisi. The president-elect - who will be inaugurated in August - is under US sanctions and has been linked to past executions of political prisoners. He is is Iran's top judge and holds ultra-conservative views.
Iran insists its nuclear programme is peaceful. Suspicions it was being used a cover to build a nuclear bomb led to crippling sanctions from the EU, US and UN Security Council in 2010.
Five years later Iran reached a deal with six powers - the US, UK, France, China, Russia and Germany - that saw it limit its nuclear activities in return for sanctions relief. Israel however condemned the deal.
Former US President Donald Trump unilaterally withdrew from the agreement in 2018 and brought back in the tough sanctions. His successor Joe Biden is now looking for a way for the US to rejoin.