Curry hit 21 points in the final quarter alone, also recording nine assists and five rebounds overall.
The former Most Valuable Player has now scored 40 points or more in six games this season.
Christian Wood hit 24 points for the Rockets, who lost their fourth consecutive game.
Andrew Wiggins added 23 points for the Warriors, while Kevon Looney recorded 14 rebounds.
Curry has now scored 20 points or more in a quarter 37 times in his career.
Tyrese Maxey scored a driving lay-up in overtime as the Philadelphia 76ers edged the Memphis Grizzlies 122-119.