In a legal saga that has dragged on for years, the Brazilian international who now plays for Paris Saint-Germain is accused of fraud and corruption.
The trial is due to take place for two weeks from 17 October, a month before the World Cup in Qatar.
Several other figures are also due to stand trial.
Two former presidents of Barcelona football club, Josep Maria Bartomeu and Sandro Rosell, as well as Neymar's parents face the same allegations, according to Spanish reports.
All those involved in the case have long denied the allegations, made by investment fund DIS, which argued it was entitled to 40% of Neymar's 2013 transfer fee when he left Brazilian club Santos.