Macron said that schools would move to remote learning from next week.
Lockdown measures, introduced in some areas of France earlier this month, are also being extended to other districts.
All non-essential shops are to close from Saturday and there will be a ban on travelling more than 10km from home without good reason.
France's Health Ministry on Wednesday reported 59,038 new coronavirus cases.
The ministry added that 5053 patients were in intensive care units, down from a 2021 record of 5072 on Tuesday.